American Literature - Modern States

 

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American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).Before the founding of the United States, the British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced by English literature. ABOUT THIS COURSE It covers all of the substantive material that is usually taught in a survey course of American Literature at the college level. Our goal as creators of this course is to prepare you to pass the College Board’s CLEP examination and obtain college credit for free. Through the guidance of . Short Stories, poetry, novels, and interesting propaganda conveying the cruel realities of a new kind of war. 75 Short Short Stories Great stories to enjoy when you have five minutes: witty, introspective, morality tales, sci-fi, feel-good, drama, and farce.


American literature - Wikipedia


American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and its preceding colonies for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States. Before the founding of the United Statesthe British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced by English literature.

The American literary tradition thus began as part of the broader tradition of English literature. The revolutionary period is notable for the political writings of Benjamin FranklinAlexander Hamiltonand Thomas American literature stories. It was in the late 18th and early 19th centuries that the nation's first novels were published.

Brown's novel depicts a tragic love story between siblings who fall in love without knowing they are related, american literature stories. With an increasing desire to produce uniquely American literature and culture, a number of key new literary figures emerged, perhaps most prominently Washington Irving and Edgar Allan Poe. InRalph Waldo Emerson started an influential movement known as Transcendentalism, american literature stories.

Inspired by that movement, Henry David Thoreau wrote Waldenwhich celebrates individualism and nature and urges resistance to the dictates of organized society.

These efforts were supported by the continuation of the slave narratives such as Frederick Douglass 's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. American literature stories the mid-nineteenth century, Nathaniel Hawthorne published his magnum opus The Scarlet Lettera novel about adultery.

America's greatest poets of the nineteenth century were Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson. Henry James put American literature on the international map with novels like The Portrait of a Lady. At the turn of the twentieth century a strong naturalist movement emerged that comprised writers such as Edith Whartonamerican literature stories, Stephen CraneTheodore Dreiserand Jack London.

American writers expressed disillusionment following World War I. The short stories and novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald captured the mood of the s, and John Dos Passos wrote too american literature stories the war. William Faulkner became one of the greatest American writers with american literature stories like The Sound and the Fury. American drama attained international status at the time with the works of Eugene O'Neillwho won four Pulitzer Prizes and the Nobel Prize.

In the mid-twentieth century, American drama was dominated by the work of playwrights Tennessee Williams and Arthur Milleras well as by the maturation of the American musical, american literature stories. Henry Miller assumed a distinct place in American Literature in the s when his semi-autobiographical novels were banned from the US.

American literature stories main literary movement since the s has been postmodernismand since the late twentieth century ethnic and minority literature has sharply increased. Because of the large immigration to New England in the s, the articulation of Puritan ideals, american literature stories, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe British colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature.

However, the first European settlements in North America had been founded elsewhere many years earlier. During the colonial period, the printing press was active in many areas, from Cambridge and Boston to New YorkPhiladelphiaand Annapolis.

The dominance of the English language was not inevitable. Moreover, american literature stories, we are now aware of the wealth of oral literary traditions already existing on the continent among the numerous different Native American groups, american literature stories.

Political events, however, would eventually make English the lingua franca for the colonies at large as well as the literary language of american literature stories. For instance, american literature stories, when the English conquered New Amsterdam inamerican literature stories, they renamed it New York and changed the administrative language from Dutch to English.

From toonly about separate items were issued from the major printing presses in the American colonies. American literature stories is a small number compared to the output of the printers in London at the time, american literature stories.

London printers published materials written by New England authors, american literature stories, so the body of American literature was larger than what was published in North America. However, printing was established in american literature stories American colonies before it was allowed in most of England.

In England, restrictive laws had long confined printing to four locations, where the government could monitor what was published: London, York, Oxford, and Cambridge.

Because of this, the colonies ventured into the modern world earlier than their provincial English counterparts. Back then, some of the American literature were pamphlets and writings extolling the benefits of the colonies to both a European and colonist audience, american literature stories.

The religious disputes that prompted settlement in America were important topics of early American literature stories literature, american literature stories. Edward Winslow also recorded a diary of the first years after the Mayflower 's arrival. This work outlined the ideal society that he and the other Separatists would build in an attempt to realize a "Puritan utopia".

Other religious writers included Increase Mather and William Bradfordamerican literature stories, author of the journal published as a History of Plymouth Plantation, — Others like American literature stories Williams and Nathaniel Ward more fiercely argued state and church separation. And still others, like Thomas Mortoncared little for the church; Morton's The New English Canaan mocked the religious settlers and declared that the Native Americans were actually better people than the American literature stories. Puritan poetry was highly religious, american literature stories, and one of the earliest books of poetry published was the Bay Psalm Booka set of translations of the biblical Psalms ; however, american literature stories, the translators' intention was not to create literature, but to create hymns that could be used in worship.

Nicholas Noyes was also known for his doggerel verse. John Eliot translated the Bible into the Algonquin language. Of the second generation of New England settlers, Cotton Mather stands out as a theologian and historian, who wrote the history of the colonies with a view to God's activity in their midst and to connecting the Puritan leaders with the great heroes of the Christian faith.

Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield represented the Great Awakeninga religious revival in the early 18th century that emphasized Calvinism.

Less strict and serious writers included Samuel Sewall who wrote a diary revealing the daily life of the late 17th century[2] and Sarah Kemble Knight. New England was not the only area in the colonies with a literature: southern literature was also growing at this time. The diary of William Byrd and The History of the Dividing Line described the expedition to survey the swamp between American literature stories and North Carolina but also comments on the differences between American Indians and the white settlers in the area.

As the colonies moved toward independence from Britain, an important discussion of American culture and identity came from the French immigrant J. Hector St. This same period saw the american literature stories of black literature, through the poet Phillis Wheatley and the slave narrative of Olaudah EquianoThe Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. At this time American literature stories Indian literature also began to flourish.

The Revolutionary period also contained political writings, including those by colonists Samuel Adamsamerican literature stories, Josiah Quincyamerican literature stories, John Dickinsonand Joseph Gallowaythe last being a loyalist to the crown.

Two key figures were Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin are esteemed works with their wit and influence toward the formation of a budding American identity. Paine's pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis writings are seen as playing a key role in influencing the political tone of the time.

During the Revolutionary War, poems and songs such as " Nathan Hale " were popular. Major satirists included John Trumbull and Francis Hopkinson. Philip Morin Freneau also wrote poems about the War. During the 18th century, writing shifted from the Puritanism of Winthrop and Bradford to Enlightenment ideas of reason.

The belief that human and natural occurrences were messages from God no longer fit with the new human-centered world. Many intellectuals believed that the human mind could comprehend the universe through the laws of physics as described by Isaac Newton. One of these was Cotton Mather. The enormous scientific, economic, social, american literature stories, and philosophical, changes of the 18th century, called the Enlightenmentamerican literature stories, impacted the authority of clergyman and scripture, making way for democratic principles, american literature stories.

The increase in population helped account for the greater diversity of opinion in religious and political life as seen in the literature of this time. In american literature stories, the population of the colonies numbered approximatelyThirty years later it was more thanByamerican literature stories, it reached 1, These new ideas can be seen in the popularity of Benjamin Franklin 's Autobiography.

Even earlier than Franklin was Cadwallader Colden -whose book The History of the Five Indian Nationspublished in was one of the first texts critical of the treatment of the Iroquois in upstate New York by the English.

Colden also wrote a book on botany, which attracted the attention of Linnaeus, and he maintained a long term correspondence with Benjamin Franklin. In the post-war period, Thomas Jefferson established his place in American literature through his authorship of the United States Declaration of Independencehis influence on the United States Constitutionhis autobiography, his Notes on the State of Virginiaand his many letters. The Federalist essays by Alexander HamiltonJames Madisonand John Jay presented a significant historical discussion of American government organization and republican values.

Fisher AmesJames Otisand Patrick Henry are also valued for their political writings and orations. Early American literature struggled to find a unique voice in existing literary genre, and this tendency was reflected in novels. European styles were frequently imitated, but critics usually considered the imitations inferior, american literature stories.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the first American novels were published. These fictions were too lengthy to be printed as manuscript or public reading. Publishers took a chance on these works in hopes they would become steady sellers and need to be reprinted, american literature stories. This scheme was ultimately successful because male and female literacy rates were increasing at the time. Brown's novel depicts a tragic love story between siblings who fell in love without knowing they were related.

In the next decade important women writers also published novels. Charlotte Temple is a seduction tale, written in the third person, which warns against listening to the voice of love and counsels resistance.

She also wrote nine novels, six theatrical works, two collections of poetry, six textbooks, and countless songs. Although Rowson was extremely popular in her time and is often acknowledged in accounts of the development of the early American novel, Charlotte Temple is often criticized as a sentimental novel of seduction. Eliza is a "coquette" who is courted by two very different men: a clergyman who offers her a comfortable domestic life and a noted libertine.

Unable to choose between them, she finds herself single when both men get married. She eventually yields to the artful libertine and gives birth to an illegitimate stillborn child at an american literature stories. The Coquette is praised for its demonstration of the era's contradictory ideas of womanhood.

Both The Coquette and Charlotte Temple are novels that treat the right of women to live as equals as the new democratic experiment. These novels are of the Sentimental genre, characterized by overindulgence in emotion, an invitation to listen to the voice of reason against misleading passions, as well as an optimistic overemphasis on the essential goodness of humanity.

Sentimentalism is often thought to be a reaction against the Calvinistic belief in the depravity of human nature. Charles Brockden Brown is the earliest American novelist whose works are still commonly read. These novels are of the Gothic genre. The first writer to be able to support himself through the income generated by his publications alone was Washington Irving. James Fenimore Cooper was also a notable author best known for his novel, The Last of the Mohicans written in After the War ofthere was an increasing desire to produce a uniquely American literature and culture, and a number of literary figures emerged, among them Washington IrvingWilliam Cullen Bryantand James Fenimore Cooper.

 

Short Stories and Classic Literature

 

american literature stories

 

The Door in the Wall. “The Door in the Wall” is a truly legendary story – written in , the story doubts the very idea of reality, the actual existence of things. Wells’ Green Door became a representation of anything beyond the visible reality, it’s penetrated popular culture and became a metaphor of something that is hidden or unknown. The novel and short story. Realism and “metafiction” Southern fiction; African American literature; New fictional modes; The influence of Raymond Carver; Multicultural writing; Poetry. Formal poets; Experimentation and Beat poetry “Deep image” poets; New directions; Autobiographical approaches; Drama. Miller, Williams, and Albee; The Off-Broadway ascendancy. American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).Before the founding of the United States, the British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced by English literature.